Not enough

Pixelation to represent endangered species counts
In 2008, the World Wildlife Fund ran a campaign that used pixelation to represent the number of animals left for endangered species. One pixel represents an animal, so an image appears more pixelated when there are fewer animals left. Imgur user JJSmooth44 recently used more recent numbers to show the images for 22 species.

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Nathan Yau at FlowingData also points us towards this piece for The Guardian from Mona Chalabi — another way of visualising how small these populations are.

Seven endangered species that could (almost) fit in a single train carriage
Some species are so close to extinction, that every remaining member can fit on a New York subway carriage (if they squeeze).

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Data disasters

Check out this interactive ‘balloon race’ data visualisation from Information Is Beautiful, of all the major data breaches from the last ten years. Billions of records.

You can choose to highlight the items by year or data sensitivity, and filter for different sectors like academic, governmental or the media.

World’s biggest data breaches & hacks

Our data problems could get a whole lot worse, and not because of hackers this time, but politicians.

A no-deal Brexit may trigger a data disaster, and UK companies don’t have a clue
In the event of a no-deal Brexit, the Data Protection Act will ensure that personal information processed in the UK will keep enjoying the same level of protection they do now. Still, under EU law, the UK will be automatically considered a third country not bound by GDPR rules, and able to diverge from the current strong standards if parliament so decides. Consequently, data from EU countries would not be able to flow freely to the UK.

“Things will remain the same for organisations residing in the UK, and who need to transfer data to the EU,” says Cillian Kieran, CEO of privacy start-up Ethyca. “But you won’t be able to gather data from the EU into the UK. This is an issue for any company that processes information at any level.”

Excel errors are everywhere

I know that Excel is only trying to be helpful when it ‘corrects’ what it sees as formatting errors, but it really needs to pack it in.

An alarming number of scientific papers contain Excel errors
A team of Australian researchers analyzed nearly 3,600 genetics papers published in a number of leading scientific journals [and] found that roughly 1 in 5 of these papers included errors in their gene lists that were due to Excel automatically converting gene names to things like calendar dates or random numbers.

You see, genes are often referred to in scientific literature by symbols — essentially shortened versions of full gene names. The gene “Septin 2” is typically shortened as SEPT2. “Membrane-Associated Ring Finger (C3HC4) 1, E3 Ubiquitin Protein Ligase” gets mercifully shortened to MARCH1.

But when you type these shortened gene names into Excel, the program automatically assumes they refer to dates — Sept. 2 and March 1, respectively. If you type SEPT2 into a default Excel cell, it magically becomes “2-Sep.” It’s stored by the program as the date 9/2/2016.

Visualising data on a comfort blanket

Our first child was always a good sleeper, all down to our fantastic parenting skills, or so we thought. Child #2 arrived and we set off with the same routines in mind. She had other ideas, however. She didn’t properly sleep through the night until she was 4. That was a challenge, to say the least. She had her 14th birthday last week: I think we’ve just about caught up with all that missed sleep now.

Here you can see a more normal sleep pattern emerge from the fabric of a baby blanket.

A father transformed data of his son’s first year of sleep into a knitted blanket
As Lee neared completion of the blanket, he shared, “All the disparate pieces felt really fragile but as I seamed it together, wove in loose ends, and removed stitch markers, it felt more and more sturdy. Something that I’d been handling like a delicate bird egg started to just feel like a blanket.”

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Feeling sleepy? Have a nap.

Napping
The practice may be winding down in Spain—60% of Spaniards say they never siesta, perhaps because high unemployment means workers want to show their bosses that they’re pulling long hours. But other countries still participate, including Greece, the Philippines, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Nigeria, Italy, and China, where “heads down” time after lunch is considered a constitutional right.

The science of sleep: dreaming, depression, and how REM sleep regulates negative emotions
The more severe the depression, the earlier the first REM begins. Sometimes it starts as early as 45 minutes into sleep. That means these sleepers’ first cycle of NREM sleep amounts to about half the usual length of time. This early REM displaces the initial deep sleep, which is not fully recovered later in the night. This displacement of the first deep sleep is accompanied by an absence of the usual large outflow of growth hormone.

A life in print

Last year, Facebook gave us the option to download all our data. Katie Day Good, an avid Facebook user since the early days, took them up on the offer and, perhaps because of her former interest in scrapbooking, decided to print it all out…

Why I printed my Facebook
Other files were less amusing. “Advertisers Who Uploaded a Contact List With Your Information” was a 116-page roster of companies, most of which I had never heard of, that have used my data to try to sell me things. The document called “Facial Recognition Code” was disturbingly brief and indecipherable, translating my face into a solid block of jumbled text—a code that only Facebook’s proprietary technology can unlock—about 15 rows deep. Some documents held secrets, too. “Search History” revealed an embarrassingly detailed record of my personal obsessions and preoccupations over the years. Crushes, phobias, people I have argued with and envied―this was the information I never wanted to post on Facebook, but instead had asked Facebook to help me find. This information, along with the facial recognition codes of my children (which were not included in the .zip file, but which I assume Facebook owns), is the data I most wish I could scrub from the servers of the world.

All told, my Facebook archive was 10,057 pages long.

Not even banks are safe

How many more of these stories will we read? Is someone keeping a list?

PIN the blame on us, says Monzo in mondo security blunder: Bank card codes stored in log files as plain text
Trendy online-only Brit bank Monzo is telling hundreds of thousands of its customers to pick a new PIN – after it discovered it was storing their codes effectively as plain-text in log files. As a result, 480,000 folks, a fifth of the bank’s customers, now have to go to a cash machine, and reset their PINs.

Major breach found in biometrics system used by banks, UK police and defence firms
The fingerprints of over 1 million people, as well as facial recognition information, unencrypted usernames and passwords, and personal information of employees, was discovered on a publicly accessible database for a company used by the likes of the UK Metropolitan police, defence contractors and banks.

The tree rings of US immigration

Here’s an unusual way of representing population growth. Pedro M Cruz, from Northeastern University in Boston, takes two centuries of US census data and shows the increasing population as rings of a tree, one for each decade.

For a radical new perspective on immigration, picture the US as an ancient tree
According to Cruz, the tree metaphor ‘carries the idea that these marks in the past are immutable’ and it ‘embodies the concept that all cells contributed to the organism’s growth’. As with so many renderings of US history, indigenous populations are conspicuously absent from the tableau. Still, Cruz’s skilfully deployed data doubles as a resonant work of cultural commentary, offering a rich and often surprising look at the ever-evolving makeup of the country.

There’s more information on the video’s Vimeo page.

Simulated dendrochronology of U.S. immigration (1830-2015)
Trees in their natural setting have annual growth rings that reflect varying environmental conditions; the rings’ forms are neither perfect circles nor ellipses. The algorithm is inspired by this variation and accordingly deposits immigrant cells in specific directions depending on the geographic origin of the immigrant. Rings that are more skewed toward the country’s East, for example, show more immigration from Europe, while rings skewed South show more immigration from Latin America. With this, it is possible to observe the quantity of immigration through the thickness of the rings. The color of the cells corresponds to specific cultural-geographical regions.

Re-thinking supposedly anonymous data

This is a little alarming.

Anonymised data isn’t nearly anonymous enough – here’s how we fix it
We developed a machine learning model to assess the likelihood of reidentifying the right person. We took datasets and we showed that in the US fifteen characteristics, including age, gender, marital status and others, are sufficient to reidentify 99.98 per cent of Americans in virtually any anonymised data set.

Some more examples.

The simple process of re-identifying patients in public health records
In late 2016, doctors’ identities were decrypted in an open dataset of Australian medical billing records. Now patients’ records have also been re-identified – and we should be talking about it.

‘Anonymous’ browsing data can be easily exposed, researchers reveal
A journalist and a data scientist secured data from three million users easily by creating a fake marketing company, and were able to de-anonymise many users …

“What would you think,” asked Svea Eckert, “if somebody showed up at your door saying: ‘Hey, I have your complete browsing history – every day, every hour, every minute, every click you did on the web for the last month’? How would you think we got it: some shady hacker? No. It was much easier: you can just buy it.”

Lancaster University’s student data stolen

University application processes are in full swing, but here is some reputationally damaging news from Lancaster University.

Lancaster University hit by cyber attack, hundreds of students’ personal data stolen
The full scale of the cyber attack was revealed yesterday (July 22), when university chiefs confirmed that hackers had breached IT systems and accessed student records … It said it regretted that the breach has led to fraudulent invoices being sent to some undergraduate applicants demanding large sums of money.

Two days later, and the police have arrested someone for it.

Man arrested over UK’s Lancaster University data breach hack allegations
Names, addresses, email addresses and phone numbers were among the categories of data visible to the hackers. Fraudulent invoices were sent to some, the university admitted. With overseas applicants (of which Lancaster had 575 last year from non-EU countries and 375 from other EU countries) paying fees measured in the tens of thousands of pounds per year, the potential for high returns is great.

Our sources added that around half a dozen students had paid these fraudulent invoices. The highest undergraduate fees for overseas (non-EU) students is Lancaster’s Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery (MBChB) course at £31,540.

It’s more than a little embarrassing, as Lancaster University is one of a number of universities offering degrees in cyber security

Cyber Security MSc – Lancaster University
In addition to the taught modules, you will also work on an individual research project, supervised by two academics from two of the four departments. Through this project, you will obtain an in-depth understanding of the theoretical and practical aspects of cyber security and technology. You will put the skills and knowledge you have developed throughout the year into practice and gain experience of tackling real-world cyber security issues.

Well, there’s a ‘real-world cyber security issue’ for you.

More data breach fines

Flying off to a nice hotel somewhere?

British Airways gets hammered with a record £183m fine for data breach
The incident came to light last September, when British Airways revealed that a sophisticated hack had led to 380,000 customer accounts being compromised, although that initial figure turned out to be an underestimation, with some 500,000 people actually affected, the ICO reckons.

Those folks had the likes of names, addresses, emails, credit card numbers and expiry dates – as well as the security codes on the rear of cards – stolen over a two-week period beginning on August 21, we were told at the time. Although the ICO claims that the thefts began occurring as early as June 2018.

Marriott to face £99 million GDPR fine from ICO over November 2018 data breach
The breach revealed in November 2018 involved the leak of 500 million customer records from the guest reservation database of Marriott’s Starwood Hotels and Resorts division. The attackers – who are unknown but believed to have links with China’s Ministry of State Security – appear to have had access to the system since 2014.

The organisation only became aware of the compromise in September 2018 following an alert from an internal security tool over an attempt to gain access to the reservation system. The company claims that it “quickly engaged” a group of security experts to investigate the apparent attack and “learned during the investigation that there had been unauthorised access to the Starwood network since 2014”.

Update 15/07/2019

Meanwhile.

Facebook’s $5 billion FTC fine is an embarrassing joke
Facebook’s stock went up after news of a record-breaking $5 billion FTC fine for various privacy violations broke today.

That, as The New York Times’ Mike Isaac points out, is the real story here: the United States government spent months coming up with a punishment for Facebook’s long list of privacy-related bad behavior, and the best it could do was so weak that Facebook’s stock price went up …

From some other perspectives, that $5 billion fine is a big deal, of course: it’s the biggest fine in FTC history, far bigger than the $22 million fine levied against Google in 2012. And $5 billion is a lot of money, to be sure. It’s just that like everything else that comes into contact with Facebook’s scale, it’s still entirely too small: Facebook had $15 billion in revenue last quarter alone, and $22 billion in profit last year …

That’s actually the real problem here: fines and punishments are only effective when they provide negative consequences for bad behavior. But Facebook has done nothing but behave badly from inception, and it has only ever been slapped on the wrist by authority figures and rewarded by the market. After all, Facebook was already under a previous FTC consent decree for privacy violations imposed in 2011, and that didn’t seem to stop any of the company’s recent scandals from happening. As Kara Swisher has written, you have to add another zero to this fine to make it mean anything.

Known unknowns

An introduction to what promises to be a fascinating new blog from Anna Powell-Smith, “about the data that the government should collect and measure in the UK, but doesn’t.”

Missing numbers
Across lots of different policy areas, it was impossible for governments to make good decisions because of a basic lack of data. There was always critical data that the state either didn’t collect at all, or collected so badly that it made change impossible.

Eventually, I decided that the power to not collect data is one of the most important and little-understood sources of power that governments have. This is why I’m writing Missing Numbers: to encourage others to ask “is this lack of data a deliberate ploy to get away with something”?

By refusing to amass knowledge in the first place, decision-makers exert power over over the rest of us. It’s time that this power was revealed, so we can have better conversations about what we need to know to run this country successfully.

MI5’s poor surveillance data handling

It’s not often a data protection or records management news story gets this much press attention.

MI5 accused of unlawful handling of surveillance data
MI5 has been accused of “extraordinary and persistent illegality” for holding on to data obtained from members of the public. The human rights organisation Liberty has taken the security service to court over the way that it gathers and stores information under the Investigatory Powers Act.

MI5 ‘unlawfully’ handled bulk surveillance data, lawsuit reveals
“The documents show extraordinary and persistent illegality in MI5’s operations, apparently for many years,” said civil liberties organisation Liberty, which is bringing the case. “The existence of what MI5 itself calls ‘ungoverned spaces’ in which it holds and uses large volumes of private data is a serious failure of governance and oversight, especially when mass collection of data of innocent citizens is concerned.”

MI5’s use of personal data was ‘unlawful’, says watchdog
The security service MI5 has handled large amounts of personal data in an “undoubtedly unlawful” way, a watchdog has said. The Investigatory Powers Commissioner said information gathered under warrants was kept too long and not stored safely. Civil rights group Liberty said the breaches involved the “mass collection of data of innocent citizens”. The high court heard MI5 knew about the issues in 2016 but kept them secret.

Liberty’s challenge to UK state surveillance powers reveals shocking failures
The challenge, by rights group Liberty, led last month to an initial finding that MI5 had systematically breached safeguards in the UK’s Investigatory Powers Act (IPA) — breaches the Home Secretary, Sajid Javid, euphemistically couched as “compliance risks” in a carefully worded written statement that was quietly released to parliament.

This was first reported last month …

MI5 slapped on the wrist for ‘serious’ surveillance data breach
Home Secretary Sajid Javid has confessed to Parliament that MI5 bungled the security of “certain technology environments used to store and analyse data,” including that of ordinary Britons spied on by the agency. In a lengthy Parliamentary statement made last week, Javid obliquely admitted that spies had allowed more people to help themselves to its treasure troves of data on British citizens than was legally allowed.

Sajid Javid admits MI5 committed serious safeguard breaches
In a written statement to parliament last week that was not widely noticed, Javid said he was notifying MPs of “compliance risks MI5 identified and reported within certain technology environments used to store and analyse data, including material obtained under the Investigatory Powers Act”.

… but now the story has been picked up by everyone, including the Middle East Eye

UK’s MI5 spy agency handled surveillance data unlawfully, court hears
An internal agency review warned more than three years ago that storage systems may have become “ungoverned spaces”, which would mean that they were operating in breach of both UK and European law. Despite this, MI5 continued to build new electronic storage systems which did not allow the agency to review its contents and decide what material should be deleted, as the law requires. The problems were withheld from the official watchdog, the Investigatory Powers Commissioner, until earlier this year, the High Court was told.

… and even Russia Today and Sputnik News are getting in on it.

‘Extraordinary & persistent illegality’: UK’s MI5 accused of mishandling bulk surveillance data
MI5 has no control of its storage of vast volumes of people’s calls, messages, web browsing history, as well as other personal data that the agency has managed to obtain on the basis of surveillance warrants, which were often issued under false pretext, the High Court heard on Tuesday in a legal challenge brought by the human rights organization Liberty.

Outcry as High Court finds MI5 engaged in ‘unlawful’ storage, handling of bulk surveillance
Ten internal documents from senior MI5 officials, including an 11 March letter from director Sir Andrew Parker, revealed significant non-compliance issues in how citizens’ data had been kept and used, including a subsequent cover-up of internal failures and that “data might be being held in ungoverned spaces in contravention of our policies”.

Let’s hope some good comes from all this.

Setting precedents for privacy: the UK legal challenges bringing surveillance into the open
These debates highlight the importance of collective efforts to assert respect for privacy and other rights as a core part of public life. We are on the cusp of a positive shift in power towards open public debate and accountability about data and the way it is used against us.

Excel timesavers

I sit and stare at Excel for a significant proportion of my day. I can’t believe I’ve not been aware of this simple trick with copying formulas without messing up cell references. It’s saving me an immense amount of time.

Copy Excel formula without changing cell references (or without file references)
It’s quite simple actually!

  1. Highlight the are you’d like to copy
  2. Go to Home / Find & Select / Replace (or press Ctrl + H)
  3. Search for = and replace with a text that’s not in your file – in this example I chose “notinfile” (note as mentioned in the comments in YouTube, you can also replace with ” =”, i.e. a space before the equal sign)
  4. Go back to Home / Find & Select / Replace (or press Ctrl + H) – search for your text – in my example “notinfile” and replace with =.
  5. That’s it!

Here are a few more tips and tricks.

10 easy Excel timesavers you might have forgotten
Microsoft has packed Excel with all kinds of different ways to get things done quicker. However, you can’t take advantage of these features if you don’t know about them. These ten techniques may only save you a few seconds every time you use them. That might not sound like much, but if you can integrate them into your workflow, you’re sure to reap the benefits over time.

Ta ra, Theresa

The press are keen to analyse her political legacy (blah blah blah blah), but I’d rather look at Prime Minister May’s time at Number 1O via two of my favourite things – photos and charts.

The political life of Theresa May – in pictures
A look back over May’s political career, from being elected as MP for Maidenhead in 1997 to Brexit, the snap election that backfired and her onstage dancing at the 2018 Tory conference.

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ta-ra-theresa-1

Theresa May: Premiership in six charts
1. She hasn’t been in office long
Mrs May has developed a reputation for surviving in almost impossible circumstances, but she is still among the UK prime ministers with the shortest time in office.

ta-ra-theresa

Google’s GDPR probe

A year on from GDPR Day, and Irish eyes are staring in Google’s direction.

Irish regulator opens first privacy probe into Google
Google’s lead regulator in the European Union, Ireland’s Data Protection Commissioner, opened its first investigation into the U.S. internet giant on Wednesday over how it handles personal data for the purpose of advertising.

The probe was the result of a number of submissions against the company, the Irish Data Protection Commissioner said, including from privacy-focused web browser Brave which complained last year that Google and other digital advertising firms were playing fast and loose with people’s data.

Ireland’s Data Protection Commissioner launches investigation into Google’s advertising and compliance with GDPR
Dr Ryan [Chief Policy Officer at Brave] said his evidence to the DPC “revealed a massive and ongoing data breach” in which Google’s DoubleClick/Authorized Buyers “leaks intimate data about the people visiting these websites to thousands of companies every day”.

I noted The Register‘s footnote on this story, about that “privacy-focused web browser Brave”.

Irish data cops are shoving a probe right into Google’s ads
There is some irony in Brave being built on Chromium, the browser engine built and maintained by – who else? – Google. Ryan told us that Brave had “certainly not” seen any pushback from Googlers involved in the Chromium project.

It could be an extremely expensive problem for Google though, as all the reports are keen to point out, although I can’t imagine it would come to that.

Google is facing its first GDPR probe from Irish privacy regulators
If found guilty, the potential penalties for Google would be enormous. The GDPR authorizes fines as high as four percent of global annual revenue, which would total $5.4 billion in Google’s case. Even more damaging, the company would have to fundamentally reshape its ad system in order to avoid future fines.

There’s quite a lot of attention on Ireland’s Data Protection Commission already.

Ireland sits idly by as GDPR goes unenforced
Politico shares an investigation into why the GDPR’s lead regulator Ireland has failed to bring a single enforcement action against the big tech companies it is supposed to watchdog.

These are hugely complex cases, that will be setting precedents that may redefine how these companies operate.

Irish data official defends tech investigation record: ‘They’re not overnight’
Helen Dixon said the reality is it will take time to produce results from the 18 major technology investigations her office is pursuing — 11 of which involve Facebook or its platforms WhatsApp and Instagram.

“These aren’t matters where we can take in a complaint today and tomorrow make a conclusion on it,” Dixon, Ireland’s data protection commissioner, said during an interview at POLITICO’s Washington-area headquarters. “They’re not overnight, and anyone who understands anything about the process understands it takes time.”

Others agree.

Is Ireland too soft with GDPR enforcement, or just being prudent?
Jules Polonetsky, CEO of the Future of Privacy Forum (FPF), comes down on the side of patience. In fact, he argues that while fines tend to get most of the headlines, they aren’t as important as the major precedents that regulators will be setting – precedents that will “redefine business models.” That, he said, takes time to be done right. […]

Danny O’Brien, international director of the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF), an aggressive privacy advocacy group, also isn’t troubled – at least not yet – about GDPR enforcement taking some time to get in gear. “There’s a lot about how the whole system was going to be organized that was left unsaid in the GDPR, so I think it’s fair to say that no-one was expecting anything to happen very quickly,” he said. “It’s not necessarily the Irish DPC’s fault.”

Let’s wait and see, then.

Remember buying music?

Here’s a simple but very effective chart showing the rise and fall of various music formats. This brings back memories.

Visualizing 40 years of music industry sales
For people of a certain age group, early memories of acquiring new music are inexorably linked to piracy. Going to the store and purchasing a $20 disc wasn’t even a part of the thought process. Napster, the first widely used P2P service, figuratively skipped the needle off the record and ended years of impressive profitability in the recording industry.

Napster was shut down in 2002, but the genie was already out of the bottle. Piracy’s effect on the industry was immediate and stark. Music industry sales, which had been experiencing impressive year-over-year growth, began a decline that would continue for 15 years.

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(Via Cool Infographics)

A typical day, comically speaking

Via FlowingData, here’s a witty visualisation of how we spend our days, on average. It’s just a stacked bar chart, but turning it into a comic “can allow the audience to identify with the story, sparking self-reflection: “Is this how I live my life? How am I different?””

A day in the life of Americans: a data comic
There are three settings in this comic (a bedroom, an office, and a bar), each serving as a metonym for an activity (sleep, work, and leisure). I have also included colors and positions as redundant, but clarifying, codes of classification. Such scenes allow for a novel method of highlighting data; a setting inside a panel is “lit up” by a light source if the activity for which it stands occupied those two hours of Americans the most.

a-typical-day

Self-improvement

The Economist’s charts are usually very clear and helpful, but that’s not to say they can’t be improved – as they themselves show.

Mistakes, we’ve drawn a few
At The Economist, we take data visualisation seriously. Every week we publish around 40 charts across print, the website and our apps. With every single one, we try our best to visualise the numbers accurately and in a way that best supports the story. But sometimes we get it wrong. We can do better in future if we learn from our mistakes — and other people may be able to learn from them, too. […]

Misleading charts
Let’s start with the worst of crimes in data visualisation: presenting data in a misleading way. We never do this on purpose! But it does happen every now and then. Let’s look at the three examples from our archive.

Mistake: Truncating the scale

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Another data protection failure

Hot on the heels of Facebook’s latest password problem, TechCrunch has news of another online service with a very shoddy approach to data protection – i.e. there wasn’t any.

The app, Family Locator, allows families to track each other’s movements, similar to the location sharing option in Google Maps. But it seems the backend database for their nearly a quarter of a million users wasn’t protected at all.

A family tracking app was leaking real-time location data
Based on a review of the database, each account record contained a user’s name, email address, profile photo and their plaintext passwords. Each account also kept a record of their own and other family members’ real-time locations precise to just a few feet. Any user who had a geofence set up also had those coordinates stored in the database, along with what the user called them — such as “home” or “work.”

They tried to get in touch with the developer, React Apps, but to no avail.

The company’s website had no contact information — nor did its bare-bones privacy policy. The website had a privacy-enabled hidden WHOIS record, masking the owner’s email address. We even bought the company’s business records from the Australian Securities & Investments Commission, only to learn the company owner’s name — Sandip Mann Singh — but no contact information. We sent several messages through the company’s feedback form, but received no acknowledgement.

On Friday, we asked Microsoft, which hosted the database on its Azure cloud, to contact the developer. Hours later, the database was finally pulled offline.

What makes good governance?

In an attempt to get rid of the sour taste left in our mouths from yesterday’s post about the rise of populist politics, here are some more award-winning data visualisations via David McCandless and the Information is Beautiful people.

The winners of the World Data Visualization Prize
Conducted in partnership with the World Government Summit, the prize focuses on how governments are improving citizens’ lives. We asked entrants to use the power of data-visualization to illuminate data on the innovations and decisions – seen and unseen – that drive progress.

Here’s my favourite, an interactive overview of the different factors that contribute to happy countries (or not).

GOV|DNA — Discover the DNA of a good government
This interactive visualization enables the exploration of the DNA of a good government. You can analyze and compare multiple indicators to investigate their influence on countries and the related behaviour and performance of governments.

what-makes-good-governance-1